Advanced Search In the spring ofa previously undescribed disease emerged in the Southwest, killing 10 people during an 8-week period in May and June. Early during an infection, victims experienced flu-like symptoms for several days, but their condition suddenly and rapidly deteriorated as their lungs filled with fluids; death usually occurred within hours of the onset of this crisis period. There was no cure, no successful medication or treatment, and the disease agent virus, bacterium, or toxin was completely unknown.
One strain is an Old World version, that though less lethal, plagued soldiers in war for the past century. The other New World Strain, on the other hand, has only been known for the past two decades but is far more lethal than its counterpart.
It was not until the discovery of the new, more severe version did people become concerned. The original Hantaan virus was researched as part of a bioweapons program, mostly to know more about the pathogen, but inquires did Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome research paper cross the line towards weaponization.
The American Sin Nombre virus, a more virulent version of Hantaan, appeared to have the possibility of being weaponized because of the early research conducted on the Hantann virus. Concerns have grown recently over the ability of terrorists or others to harness the hantavirus as a bioweapon given its extreme lethality.
However, concerns over the weaponization of the hantavirus should be evaluated based on its history, the characteristics of the virus, and whether it is efficient enough to be a part of a coordinated biological attack. Such analysis reveals that, while the hantavirus is deadly, it would not be the first choice to weaponize because of its limitations.
History The hantavirus has only recently been identified, though there are indications it has been around for some time. The main effort to identify the hantavirus did not occur until In Maya young and physically fit Navajo man who was suffering from shortness of breath died rapidly while in a hospital in New Mexico.
James Cheek of the Indian Health Service, if it was not for this coincidence, hantavirus may not have been discovered. Laboratory tests could not pinpoint a known pathogen to account for the severity of the pulmonary failures.
CDC scientists were able to determine it was a specialized virus, calling it the hantavirus, and the disease it caused hantavirus pulmonary syndrome HPS. After further inquiry, the CDC was able to determine that the hantavirus was a series of viruses, and dubbed the US strain the Sin Nombre virus.
With this new discovery, a new pathogen was entered into the system for deadly illnesses. As it turns out, the hantavirus is not a new disease and is far more widespread than previously suspected in the United States. For example, tissues analysis has revealed that the earliest proven case of hantavirus occurred in Utah inand has been found in 32 states.
Even though an earlier sample has not been found, it is assumed hantavirus has been around for years considering the Navajo have ingrained a disease that has similar characteristics to the hantavirus into their traditional medical beliefs. Another area where hantavirus is endemic is the pan Eurasian continent with an alternate strain of hantavirus involving hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome HFRS or nephropathia epidemica NE.
Despite being prevalent in Europe, it was not until the Korean War that scientists started drawing links to the hantavirus. During that time American doctors came into contact with a disease that made approximately 3, United Nations troops ill due to acute renal failure, hemorrhages, and sometimes shock.
Despite its ability to effect military operations as demonstrated in the field, military studies of hantavirus do not appear to have gone past the research stage.
Hantavirus is spread via rodent either from its bite saliva or the aerosolization of urine, feces, saliva, or nesting materials with human to human transmission deemed unlikely. Hantavirus is a genus part of the Bunyaviridea family of negative sense single stranded RNA viruses.
As the cell reproduces more hantavirus, the hantavirus kills the host cell and infects others. As this spreads throughout the body, the internal structures fail and can lead to death. The incubation period for HPS is 4 to 42 days. However, once someone has been exposed to HPS it attacks the pulmonary system the lungs with initial symptoms occurring from one to five days after exposure.
HPS attacks with four phases in order; the febrile prodromal periodcardiopulmonary, diuretic, and convalescent stages. The febrile stage lasts between one to twelve days and symptoms include fever, myalgia, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Towards the end of the febrile stage, pulmonary edema accumulation of fluid in the lungsnonproductive cough and tachypnea take hold.
The cardiopulmonary stage occurs for four to twenty-four hours and symptoms include pulmonary edema, hypotension, weakness, delirium, and shock. By this point, the patient usually dies because of hypoxia or circulatory compromise. The diuretic phase sees the resolution of pulmonary edema, shock, and fever.hantavirus IgM antibodies or a significant increase in IgG antibodies.
Whole blood is the preferred specimen; however, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissue specimens will be accepted for hantavirus nucleic acid detection.
If hantavirus is Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome August The symptoms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome may resemble those of other febrile illnesses. The development of an accurate diagnostic test should therefore improve clinical prognosis and be useful in epidemiologic studies.
Two clinical syndromes are associated with hantavirus infection in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Autopsy findings typically reveal a common feature of increased permeability in microvascular beds, suggesting vascular endothelium is a.
The initial identification in of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a novel, highly fatal respiratory illness among American Indians in the southwestern USA in opened the window to the recognition of a well-established pan-American zoonosis with a myriad of causative viruses and rodent vectors, although all are New World hantaviruses among New World sigmodontine rodents.
Biology First Paper On Serendip. Hantavirus Magdalena Michalak. I did a paper on viruses in high school and I remember being particularly bothered by hantavirus (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or HPS), even more so than by any of the various Ebola .
diseases—Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, the latter having a fatality rate of above 40 %. Although considerable research for over two of a research paper could reveal the exchange of knowledge among researchers in their effort to bring out a published paper.
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