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All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Abstract Previous researches for understanding supply chain relationship have mostly focused on its vertical collaboration between buyers and suppliers. However, there have been some instances of volatile and stable collaborative relationships amongst competitors such as Apple-Samsung product manufacturer-component supplier relationship and airline alliances, respectively, which is recognized as coopetition.
Even though there have been several qualitative studies and a number of game theory models on coopetition, it is rare to find any attempts on quantitative characterization of such coopetitive dynamic behavior in supply chain relationship.
Hence, in this work, we formulated a MINLP model mathematically representing coopetitive relationships in a cost efficient supply chain network. In particular, the coopetition factor was newly introduced to measure the degree of coopetition among supply chain players and determine the optimal level of coopetition to engage in.
The utility and practicality of the model were strongly demonstrated using a case study of a hypothetical smartphone supply chain network under different scenarios, thus proposing their strategically viable optimal interactions.
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Therefore, this exploratory study can herald a new era of global coopetitive business. Such studies have focused on vertical cooperation between buyers and suppliers, exploring its impact on firm performance [ 23 ] and the crucial factors [ 45 ] and impediments [ 6 ] to its success. However, in some cases, there are also collaborations among competitors as exemplified by the cooperative relationship between Apple and Samsung before their recent legal dispute [ 7 ], where Samsung supplied majority of the components for Apple's iPhone [ 89 ] while both companies compete in the smartphone consumer market.
Another example, outside of the supply chain context, is airline alliances where the firms strategically form the stable global network to broaden their flight connectivity, thereby giving travelers more convenience [ 10 ]. This simultaneous interaction of cooperation and competition is called coopetition [ 1112 ] which may be fragile or strong depending on various business circumstances.
Despite several qualitative studies on inter-firm coopetition, only a hand of works have discussed such phenomenon in supply chains [ 13 ]. In a manufacturing supply chain, where component suppliers enter contracts with end-product manufacturers OEMs to provide them with various types of components for their products that are sold in the consumer market Fig 1awe hypothesize that vertically integrated firm s have expanded their component production beyond only supplying for their own end-products and have taken up key suppliers roles, thus leading to the emergence of coopetition.
Specifically, such firms are able to engage in cooperative component supplier relationship with other end-product manufacturers while competing with their products in the consumer market Fig 1b. This is the case in the aforementioned Apple—Samsung example, where the vertically integrated firm, Samsung, supplied components to its competitor, Apple, resulting in coopetitive behavior.
Interestingly, the strategic intent, which usually describes typical coopetitive relationships, of such behavior is not obvious.Belkin's wireless charging dock handles your iPhone XS and Apple Watch The $ Boost Up dock is due in December, unless you're waiting for AirPower.
By R. Lawler.
Problem Definition “ How could the iPhone 4s be improved?” Research Objectives The aim of the research was to gain an insight into what hardware and software improvements that consumers believe should be made to the current model of the iPhone, the iPhone 4s.
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