Scientific Task and Rate-Setting work study:
Industrial revolution brought about a complete change in the methods of production, tools and equipments, organization of labour and methods of raising capital. Employees went to their work instead of receiving it, and so, the factory system, as it is known today, become a dominant feature of the economy.
Under this system, land and buildings, hired labour, and capital are made available to the entrepreneur, who strives to combine these factors in the efficient achievement of a particular goal.
All these changes, in turn, brought about changes in the field of management. Traditional, conventional or customary ideas of management were slowly given up and management came to be based on scientific principles.
In the words of L. Urwick- "Modern management has thrown open a new branch of human knowledge, a fresh universe of discourse". During the period following the industrial revolution, certain pioneers tried to challenge the traditional character of management by introducing new ideas and character of management by introducing new ideas and approaches.
The notable contributors of this period are: Professor Charles Babbage UK He was a Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University.
Prof Babbage found that manufacturers made little use of science and mathematics, and that they manufacturers relied upon opinions instead of investigations and accurate knowledge.
He felt that the methods of science and mathematics could be applied to the solution of methods in the place of guess work for the solution of business problems.
He advocated the use of accurate observations, measurement and precise knowledge for taking business decisions. He urged the management of an enterprise, on the basis of accurate data obtained through rigid investigation, the desirability of finding out the number of times each operation is repeated each hour, the dividing of work into mental and physical efforts, the determining of the precise cost for every process and the paying of a bonus to the workers in proportion to his own efficiency and the success of enterprise.
James Watt Junior and Mathew Robinson Boulton contributed to the development of management thought by following certain management techniques in their engineering factory at Soho in Birmingham. Robert Owens, the promoter of co-operative and trade union movement in England, emphasized the recognition of human element in industry.
He firmly believed that workers' performance in industry was influenced by the working conditions and treatment of workers. He introduced new ideas of human relations - shorter working hours, housing facilities, training of workers in hygiene, education of their children, provision of canteen etc.
Robert Owen, managed a group of textile mills in Lanark, Scotland, where he used his ideas of human relations. Though his approach was paternalistic, he came to be regarded as the father of Personnel Management.
R Towne was the president of the famous lock manufacturing company "Yale and Town". He urged the combination of engineers and economists as industrial managers. This combination of qualities, together with at least some skill as an accountant, is essential to the successful management of industrial workers.History of Management Thought In this chapter, we will focus on four well‐established schools of management thought: the scientific can understand the evolution of management theory in terms of how people have wrestled with matters of.
The Evolution of Management Thought is a well-respected, seminal work in the field of Business Administration. Written in a clear, interesting, and easily readable manner, it covers the historical development of management theory from the pre-industrial age through the current r-bridal.coms: EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT- Free online tutorials for Principles of Management and Organisational Behaviour () courses with .
In the above three stages of Evolution of Management Systems, the competitive advantage was derived almost exclusively from the internal resources of the firm. At the end of the s, a radical fourth shift has occurred: the competitive advantage became increasingly derived from the external resources of the firm – through the extended.
Evolution of Management Concept. The origin of Evolution management can be traced back to the days when man started living in groups.
History reveals that strong men organized the masses into groups according to their intelligence, physical and mental capabilities. Evolution of management thought. Introduction: Modern managers use many of the practices, principal, and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experience/5(14).